Sensory Science Research

 Associate Professor Michael J. Hautus, PhD (Auck)


Michael obtained a PhD in Psychology from the University of Auckland in 1993, where he is now an Associate Professor in the School of Psychology. His professional interests lie in the domain of empirical quantitative research, which includes quantitative assessment of the functioning of the auditory system, modelling auditory, visual, and flavour judgment, and modelling cognitive processes involved in judgment. He has over 50 peer-reviewed publications in international journals, which span the areas of quantitative psychology, memory, sensory evaluation, pain, auditory neuroscience, mathematical modelling, and decision science.

Research Projects

Hedonics and Preference Testing

Preference is not an intrinsic or measurable property of stimuli. It is a psychological dimension generated from the interactions between perceptions, memories, and internal psychological states. Preference influences choice, so the ability to quantify preference is essential to a scientific understanding of human consumer behaviour. The measurement of preference also has applications in key fields including manufacturing, politics, policy development, and health. For example, healthy food options can be designed that reduce the magnitude of preference between healthy options and commonly consumed unhealthy options as assessed in a particular target group. Measurement of preference is currently based on an analysis of the responses given by a group; for example, 80% prefer X over Y. This is an inadequate measure because percentage preference does not indicate the magnitude of preference; 80% may prefer X over Y, but the magnitude of their preference may be small, or large; X may even be the least disliked option. Also, percentage preference is contaminated by response bias and other factors. For example, when presented with two identical stimuli, typically around 40% of judges will have a preference for one over the other; yet this selection can only be based on extraneous factors such as response bias. My current research is investigating approaches to the assessment of preference, primarily for foods and beverages, that overcomes the limitation outlined above.


Modelling of Performance in Sensory Tasks

When an assessment of sensory (or other) performance is undertaken, the most desirable outcome would be to produce a measure of performance that is independent of both the task and the response bias of the individual. Signal Detection Theory (SDT) presents an approach to accomplish this by specifying separate measures of response bias and performance. In theory (but not quite in practice) SDT will provide the same estimate of performance for the same stimuli judged in different tasks. This is certainly not true of commonly used methods of performance, such as the proportion of correct judgements. My research has involved developing and evaluating SDT-based models for tasks such as the same-different task and the matching-to-sample task. I am currently developing models for tasks commonly employed in the sensory evaluation of foods and beverages.


Projects in Mathematical Psychology

I also have several projects underway in more ‘basic’ psychophysical research. These projects involve various aspects of model building, improvement to basic psychophysical techniques, and computer programming projects to design tools for psychophysical analysis.


Segregation of Objects by the Auditory System

Recent research has indicated that a certain type of Dichotic Pitch (there are many types) provides unique electrophysiological indicators to binaural auditory processing. Indeed, the only cue to the presence of a separate auditory object (the pitch) stems from interaural timing differences. No other monaural or binaural cues are required to generate this percept. Our research has utilized high-density electroencephalography to help determine the sequences of processing stages for these stimuli. The EEG laboratory is adjacent to the psychophysics laboratory, which enables an efficient and productive synergy between these two areas.


SDT Assistant

I have an on-going software development project, the outcome of which is called SDT Assistant. This software is designed to assist the researcher in analysing data collected using various tasks used in Signal Detection Theory and/or Thurstonian Analysis. The current version of the software is capable of: (1) fitting Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to confidence-rating data using models appropriate for several different tasks; (2) providing standard errors and confidence intervals for estimates of d′ from data collected using standard binary responses, for a range of different tasks; and (3) generating streams of (x, y) data that can be used to plot ROC curves given a specific value of d′, also for a range of tasks. Further information on SDT Assistant (and free download) can be found on my main website, given above.


Selected Publications


Gao, Y., Taylor, M. P., Chen, J. J. J., & Hautus, M. J. (2011b). Operational and control decision making in aluminium smelters. Advanced Materials Research, 201-203, 1632-1641. doi: 10.4028/

Hautus, M. J., Macmillan, N. A., & Rotello, C. M. (2008). Toward a complete decision model of item and source recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15(5), 889-905. doi: 10.3758/pbr.15.5.889

Hautus, M. J., Shepherd, D., & Peng, M. (2011). Decision strategies for the A Not-A, 2AFC and 2AFC-reminder tasks: Empirical tests. Food Quality and Preference, 22(5), 433-442. doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2011.02.008

Hautus, M. J., Stocks, M. A., & Shepherd, D. (2010). The single interval adjustment matrix (SIAM) yes-no task applied to the measurement of sucrose thresholds. Journal of Sensory Studies, 25(6), 940-955. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-459X.2010.00314.x

Hautus, M. J., van Hout, D., & Lee, H. S. (2009). Variants of A Not-A and 2AFC tests: Signal Detection Theory models. Food Quality and Preference, 20(3), 222-229. doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2008.10.002

Johnson, B.W. & Hautus, M. (2010). Processing of spatial information in human auditory cortex: Neuromagnetic responses to interaural timing and level difference cues. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2610-2619.

O'Mahony, M., & Hautus, M. J. (2008). The signal detection theory ROC curve: Some applications in food sensory science. Journal of Sensory Studies, 23(2), 186-204.

Shepherd, D., & Hautus, M. J. (2007). The measurement problem in level discrimination. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121(4), 2158-2167. doi: 10.1121/1.2697628

Shepherd, D., & Hautus, M. J. (2009). Negative masking and the units problem in audition. Hearing Research, 247(1), 60-70. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2008.10.008


Published Abstracts 

Johnson, B.W., Reid, M., McArthur, G., Castles, A., & Hautus, M. (2010). A comparison of EEG and MEG for assessment of hemispheric asymmetries in brain function [Abstract]. Combined Abstracts of 2010 Australian Psychology Conferences [CDROM].

Lodhia, V., Johnson, B.W., Hautus, M.J., & Peng, M. (2008). Controlled auditory processing of spatial and non-spatial information in dichotic pitches [Abstract]. Proceedings of the 26 International Australasian Winter Conference on Brain Research 2008, 26.

Lodhia, V., Johnson, B.W., & Hautus, M.J. (2008). The late negativity for binaural pitches: Object related negativity or pitch onset response? [Abstract]. Proceedings of the 26 International Australasian Winter Conference on Brain Research 2008, 26.


Published Conference Proceedings

Hautus, M.J., Shepherd, D., Peng, M., Phillips, R.C., & Lodhia, V. (2009). The effect of a reminder stimulis on the decision strategy adopted in the two-alternative forced-choice procedure. In Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meetings of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 423-428). Galway, Ireland.

Reid, M., Johnson, B., McArthur, G., Castles, A., Hautus, M. (2010). Auditory processing in the dyslexic brain. In Christensen, W., Schier, E., & Sutton, J. (Eds.), ASCS09: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Australasian Society for Cognitive Science (pp. 293-297). Sydney: Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science.

Shepherd, D., Hautus, M.J., & Stocks, M.A. (2009). Assessing the single-interval adjustment matrix yes-no task. In Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 533-538). Galway, Ireland.

Taylor, M.P., Chen, J.J.J., & Hautus, M.J. (2007). Operational control decision making in smelters. In Proceedings of the 9th Australasian Aluminium Smelting Technology Conference and Workshops. Terrigal, NSW, Australia.


Conference Presentations, Colloquia, and other presentations

Brock, J., Reid, M., Bzishvili, S., Hautus, M. & Johnson, B. (2011, December). Atypical brain responses to illusory auditory pitch in children with autism. Paper presented at the Australasian Cognitive Neuroscience Conference, Sydney.

Gao, Y., Taylor, M.P., Chen, J.J.J., Lavoie, P., & Hautus, M.J. (2011). Advanced supervisory control of smelters. In 10th Australasian Aluminium Smelting Technology Conference. Tasmania, Australia.

Hautus, M.J., Rotello, C.M., & Macmillan, N.A. (2009). Tests of a Model for Source and Item Recognition Memory. In Psychonomic Society Conference. Boston, USA.

Hautus, M.J., Shepherd, D., Lee, J., & Hill, E.M. (2011). Quantifying affective reactions to acoustic stimuli: a pilot study. In Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference. Auckland, New Zealand.

Lodhia, V., Neiumdeniya, C., Hamm, J., Johnson, B., Brock, J., & Hautus, M.J. (2011, May). Bottom up or top-down? An investigation of perceptual processing in ASD using dichotic pitch. Paper presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, San Diego.

Peng, M., Jaeger, S.R., & Hautus, M.J. (2011). Incorporating group information into estimating individual odour detection thresholds. In Panghorn Sensory Science Symposium. Toronto, Canada.